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An inherited disorder in which a person doesn’t have enough of an enzyme called G6PD that helps red blood cells work the way they should. In G6PD deficiency, the red blood cells break down when the body is exposed to infection, severe stress, or certain drugs, chemicals, or foods. This may lead to a condition called hemolytic anemia. This disorder is most common in African-American men and in men of Middle Eastern or Mediterranean descent. Also called glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.
A metal element that is used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and other imaging methods. It is a contrast agent, which helps show abnormal tissue in the body during imaging with a special machine.
The pear-shaped organ found below the liver. Bile is concentrated and stored in the gallbladder.
A protein component of blood plasma containing antibodies effective against certain micro organisms.
A type of high-energy radiation that is different from an x-ray.
Having to do with the stomach.
A tube that is inserted through the nose, down the throat and esophagus, and into the stomach. It can be used to give drugs, liquids, and liquid food, or used to remove substances from the stomach. Giving food through a gastric feeding tube is a type of enteral nutrition. Also called nasogastric tube and NG tube.
A doctor who specializes in diseases of the digestive (gastrointestinal) tract.
Refers to the stomach and intestines. Also called GI.
A type of tumor that usually begins in cells in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. It can be benign or malignant. Also called GIST.
The digestive tract. It consists of those organs and structures that process and prepare food to be used for energy; for example, the stomach, small intestine and large intestine.
A way of giving medicines and liquids, including liquid foods, through a small tube placed through the nose or mouth into the stomach or small intestine. Sometimes the tube is placed into the stomach or small intestine through an incision (cut) made on the outside of the abdomen. Gavage may be added to what a person is able to eat and drink, or it may be the only source of nutrition. It is a type of enteral nutrition. Also called tubefeeding.
A piece of DNA that serves as the instructions to tell the cells of the body how to function. Most cells of the body have 2 copies of each gene, one passed down (inherited) from the mother and one from the father.
A type of experimental treatment in which foreign genetic material (DNA or RNA) is inserted into a person's cells to prevent or fight disease. Gene therapy is being studied in the treatment of certain types of cancer.
A temporary loss of feeling and a complete loss of awareness that feels like a very deep sleep. It is caused by special drugs or other substances called anesthetics. General anesthesia keeps patients from feeling pain during surgery or other procedures.
Official nonbrand names by which medicines are known. Generic names usually refer to the chemical name of the drug.
Having to do with genes. Most genes are sequences of DNA that contain information for making specific proteins or molecules of RNA that perform important functions in a cell. The information in genes is passed from parents to children.
A specially trained health care professional who helps patients and families understand how genetics and genomics impact their health and development.
An increased chance to develop a certain condition because a change (mutation) is present in one or more genes within the body’s cells.
The process of analyzing cells or tissues to look for genetic changes that may be a sign of a disease or condition, such as cancer. These changes may be a sign that a person has an increased risk of developing a specific disease or condition.
The study of genes and heredity. Heredity is the passing of genetic information and traits (such as eye color and an increased chance of getting a certain disease) from parents to offspring.
The entire set of genes. Human cells carry around 20,000 different genes.
The study of the entire set of genes and their effects on health and development.
A bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause infection and disease.
A reproductive cell of the body. Germ cells are egg cells in females and sperm cells in males.
A type of tumor that begins in the cells that give rise to sperm or eggs. Germ cell tumors can occur almost anywhere in the body and can be either benign or malignant.
A type of tumor that usually begins in cells in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. It can be benign or malignant. Also called gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
Organs that makes one or more substances, such as hormones, digestive juices, sweat, tears, saliva, or milk. Endocrine glands release the substances directly into the bloodstream. Exocrine glands release the substances into a duct or opening to the inside or outside of the body.
Any of the cells that hold nerve cells in place and help them work the way they should. The types of glial cells include oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, microglia, and ependymal cells. Also called neuroglia.
A type of sugar; the chief source of energy for living organisms.
In cancer, a description of a tumor based on how abnormal the cancer cells and tissue look under a microscope and how quickly the cancer cells are likely to grow and spread. Low-grade cancer cells look more like normal cells and tend to grow and spread more slowly than high-grade cancer cells. Grading systems are different for each type of cancer. They are used to help plan treatment and determine prognosis. Also called histologic grade and tumor grade.
A system for classifying cancer cells in terms of how abnormal they appear when examined under a microscope. The objective of a grading system is to provide information about the probable growth rate of the tumor and its tendency to spread. The systems used to grade tumors vary with each type of cancer. Grading plays a role in treatment decisions.
Healthy skin, bone, or other tissue taken from one part of the body and used to replace diseased or injured tissue removed from another part of the body.
The condition that results when the immune cells of a transplant (usually of bone marrow) from a donor attack the tissues of the person receiving the transplant. A reaction of engrafted tissue against your own tissue.
An immune response to a person's tumor cells by immune cells present in a donor's transplanted tissue, such as bone marrow or peripheral blood.
A rare type of soft tissue tumor that usually begins in Schwann cells (cells that hold nerve cells in place). It can occur anywhere in the body, but it usually occurs in or under the skin of the head and neck (especially the mouth or tongue). It may also occur in the chest, breast, esophagus, stomach, or other internal organ. Most granular cell tumors are benign (not cancer), but some may be malignant (cancer) and spread quickly to nearby tissue. They usually occur in middle-aged adults. Also called Abrikossoff tumor.
White blood cells that help to protect you against bacterial infection; also called ""polys"", ""segs"", or neutrophils.
The normal response to a major loss, such as the death of a loved one. Grief may also be felt by a person with a serious, long-term illness or with a terminal illness. It may include feelings of great sadness, anger, guilt, and despair. Physical problems, such as not being able to sleep and changes in appetite, may also be part of grief.
The area of your body where the legs join the abdomen.
Goals for the expected sizes of infants and children and activities they should be able to do at specific ages, such as sit, stand, play, speak, think, and interact with others.
A naturally occurring protein that causes cells to grow and divide. Too much growth factor production by some cancer cells helps them grow quickly. Other growth factors help normal cells recover from side effects of chemotherapy.
A technique in which a person focuses on positive images in his or her mind. It can help people reach a relaxed, focused state and help reduce stress and give a sense of well-being. Also called imagery.